Certainty, severity, and celerity are the key elements of deterrence theory. Can crime be reduced by making the prescribed punishment so certain and severe that a rational individual would be deterred from committing criminal acts? Explain why or why not using specific criminological theories for support. Moreover, address how plea bargaining in criminal justice counters the premise of deterrence theory. Should social scientists continue investigating and promoting biological causes of criminal behavior as promoted by major contributors to biological positivism such as Cesare Lombroso regarded by some as the father of criminology? Provide examples of past biological causes and explain why such past research could be validly criticized on the grounds that it promotes racist, sexist, or class-based stereotypes of criminals. Conceptually, social learning theory has been applied to the fields of sociology, psychology, criminal justice, and criminology to explain how criminal values, ideas, techniques, and expressions are transmitted from one individual to another. Provide an in-depth and comprehensive overview of social learning theory and also provide a real-life example. Differential association theory, as developed by Sutherland, is a learning theory that concentrates on one’s associates and the normative definition. Thoroughly explain differential association theory and provide a detailed real-life example of the theory. Learning theorists believe that deviant behavior can be eliminated or modified by taking away the reward of the behavior, increasing the negative consequences of the behavior, or changing the balance of reward/punishment for the behavior. Do you agree or disagree with the beliefs of learning theorists? Fully and comprehensively explain your reason for agreement or disagreement. control theory?

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